PASTEURIZATION TABLE... or.. how to safely cook your food to a lower internal temperature..

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daveomak

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Cooking food to a lower temperature for a longer time has some valuable side effects...    

The food can be moist...

Fat will not melt and run out into the collection pan...

The NOT so valuable side effects....

Folks have a long standing aversion to foods that do NOT looked cooked regardless of food safety issues...

Chicken will be pink...  BUT that is also reflective of the young age poultry is harvested these days with the advent of super fast growing chickens...

Chicken can be pink if fully cooked to 165 deg. F...

....click on pics to enlarge....


Temperature Time Temperature Time
°F (°C) (Minutes) °F (°C) (Seconds)

130 (54.4) 112 min... 146 (63.3) 169 sec
131 (55.0) 89 min.... 147 (63.9) 134 sec
132 (55.6) 71 min.... 148 (64.4) 107 sec
133 (56.1) 56 min.... 149 (65.0) 85 sec
134 (56.7) 45 min.... 150 (65.6) 67 sec
135 (57.2) 36 min.... 151 (66.1) 54 sec
136 (57.8) 28 min.... 152 (66.7) 43 sec
137 (58.4) 23 min.... 153 (67.2) 34 sec
138 (58.9) 18 min.... 154 (67.8) 27 sec
139 (59.5) 15 min.... 155 (68.3) 22 sec
140 (60.0) 12 min.... 156 (68.9) 17 sec
141 (60.6) 9 min...... 157 (69.4) 14 sec
142 (61.1) 8 min...... 158 (70.0) 0 sec
143 (61.7) 6 min.......
144 (62.2) 5 min.......
145 (62.8) 4 min.......

Table C.1: Pasteurization times for beef, corned beef, lamb, pork and cured pork (FDA, 2009, 3-401.11.B.2).


Temperature........

...................... Time

°F (°C).............. 12% fat

136 (57.8)......... 81.4 min

137 (58.3)........ 65.5 min

138 (58.9)........ 52.9 min

139 (59.4)........ 43 min

140 (60.0)........ 35 min

141 (60.6)........ 28.7 min

142 (61.1)........ 23.7 min

143 (61.7)........ 19.8 min

144 (62.2)........ 16.6 min

145 (62.8)........ 13.8 min

146 (63.3)........ 11.5 min

148 (64.4)........ 7.7 min

150 (65.6)........ 4.9 min

152 (66.7)........ 2.8 min

154 (67.8)........ 1.6 min

156 (68.9)........ 1 min

158 (70.0)........ 40.9 sec

160 (71.1)........ 26.9 sec

162 (72.2)........ 17.7 sec

164 (73.3)........ 11.7 sec

166 (74.4)........ 0 sec

Table C.2: Pasteurization times for a 7D reduction in Salmonella for chicken and turkey (FSIS, 2005).

 

FAT % changes the time/temp...  as seen below...   Fatty meat takes longer to pasteurize....

Pasteurization Time for Lean Fish
(starting at 41°F / 5°C and put in a 131–140°F / 55–60°C water bath)
 
55°C

56°C

57°C

58°C

59°C

60°C

Thickness

131°F

133°F

134.5°F

136.5°F

138°F

140°F

5 mm

2½ hr

1¾ hr

1¼ hr

50 min

35 min

30 min

10 mm

2¾ hr

2 hr

1½ hr

60 min

45 min

35 min

15 mm

2¾ hr

2 hr

1½ hr

1¼ hr

55 min

50 min

20 mm

3 hr

2¼ hr

1¾ hr

1½ hr

1¼ hr

60 min

25 mm

3¼ hr

2½ hr

2 hr

1¾ hr

1½ hr

1¼ hr

30 mm

3¾ hr

3 hr

2½ hr

2 hr

1¾ hr

1¾ hr

35 mm

4 hr

3¼ hr

2¾ hr

2½ hr

2¼ hr

2 hr

40 mm

4½ hr

3¾ hr

3 hr

2¾ hr

2½ hr

2¼ hr

45 mm

4¾ hr

4 hr

3½ hr

3¼ hr

2¾ hr

2½ hr

50 mm

5¼ hr

4½ hr

4 hr

3½ hr

3¼ hr

3 hr

55 mm

5¾ hr

5 hr

4½ hr

4 hr

3¾ hr

3½ hr

60 mm

6¼ hr

5½ hr

5 hr

4½ hr

4 hr

3¾ hr

65 mm

7 hr

6 hr

5½ hr

5 hr

4½ hr

4¼ hr

70 mm

7½ hr

6¾ hr

6 hr

5½ hr

5 hr

4¾ hr
Pasteurization Time for Fatty Fish
(starting at 41°F / 5°C and put in a 131–140°F / 55–60°C water bath)
 
55°C

56°C

57°C

58°C

59°C

60°C

Thickness

131°F

133°F

134.5°F

136.5°F

138°F

140°F

5 mm

4¼ hr

3 hr

2 hr

1½ hr

60 min

40 min

10 mm

4¼ hr

3 hr

2 hr

1½ hr

1¼ hr

50 min

15 mm

4½ hr

3¼ hr

2¼ hr

1¾ hr

1¼ hr

60 min

20 mm

4¾ hr

3½ hr

2½ hr

2 hr

1½ hr

1¼ hr

25 mm

5 hr

3¾ hr

2¾ hr

2¼ hr

1¾ hr

1½ hr

30 mm

5¼ hr

4 hr

3¼ hr

2½ hr

2¼ hr

2 hr

35 mm

5½ hr

4¼ hr

3½ hr

3 hr

2½ hr

2¼ hr

40 mm

6 hr

4¾ hr

4 hr

3¼ hr

3 hr

2½ hr

45 mm

6½ hr

5¼ hr

4¼ hr

3¾ hr

3¼ hr

3 hr

50 mm

7 hr

5¾ hr

4¾ hr

4¼ hr

3¾ hr

3¼ hr

55 mm

7½ hr

6¼ hr

5¼ hr

4¾ hr

4¼ hr

3¾ hr

60 mm

8 hr

6¾ hr

5¾ hr

5¼ hr

4¾ hr

4¼ hr

65 mm

8½ hr

7¼ hr

6¼ hr

5¾ hr

5¼ hr

4¾ hr

70 mm

9¼ hr

8 hr

7 hr

6¼ hr

5¾ hr

5¼ hr
Table 3.1: Pasteurization times for a one million to one reduction of Listeria in fin-fish.

I used D[sub]60[sup]5.59 = 2.88 minutes for lean fish (such as cod) and D605.68 = 5.13 minutes for fatty fish (such as salmon) from Embarek and Huss (1993). For my calculations I used a thermal diffusivity of 0.995×10-7 m2/s, a surface heat transfer coefficient of 95 W/m2-K, and took β = 0.28 (to simulate the heating speed of a 2:3:5 box).[/sup][/sub]

...Pathogen growth temperatures....


.....  pH and water activity have an effect on pathogen growth....


SAFETY OF PASTEURIZED-CHILLED FOOD
Copyright 1997 by O. Peter Snyder, Jr., Ph.D.
Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management
670 Transfer Road, Suite 21A
St. Paul, Minnesota 55114 USA
Revised March 2003

What Is A Retail "Chilled" Food System?
Actually, a retail "chilled" food system is misnamed. It is simply an extension of conventional retail pasteurized food systems.

1. Food is cooked and transferred hot to a package, which is sealed and cooled, or
2. Food is cooked, cooled, transferred without pathogen contamination to a package, and sealed or
3. Packaged food is cooked, cooled, and then, kept chilled to control the outgrowth of spores that survive pasteurization.

The important principle is that the more severe the heating (cooking) process after pasteurization has been achieved (e.g., above 130F for 87 minutes), the further the spoilage microorganisms are reduced. Hence, the refrigerated shelf life of the product is extended. A second principle is that the closer the temperature of the food product during storage is to freezing temperatures of 28 to 32F (freezing point, which depends on salt and sugar content), the longer the shelf life. Yeasts and molds can grow at temperatures as low as 14F. Bacteria can grow at 23F.

Table 1 shows holding times based on the 1997 FDA Food Code (2), which sets the standard for cold holding of food at 41F for 7 days, 45F for 4 days, and 4 hours between 45 and 140F. The other temperatures and times are derived using the Ratkowsky predictive growth equation (4).

Table 1. FDA-derived Holding Times at Specified Temperatures

Temperature

Safe Storage Time

F

C

Days

55
50
45*
41*
40
35
30

12.8
10.0
7.2
5.0
4.4
1.7
-1.1

1.7
2.4
4.0
7
7.5
19.3
123.8
* FDA 1997 Food Code recommended cold food holding temperature.
 
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Thank you for posting the charts Dave.    I have a question I hope you can answer.     Is cured pork and beef sausage slowly brought up from a temperature of 35 degrees and held at a temperature of 145 degrees F for 30 minutes in a smoker considered pasteurized and safe to eat?     Iv'e always read to bring the sausage up to 152 degrees to be safe to eat.    Thank you for any insight you can provide.

Arlie
 
POINTS for great info. 

I am trying to save this.
 
You can't discuss temperatures without mentioning times. Most references to temperature are the INSTANTANEOUS exposure. 145 for 4 minutes is okay. 152 instantaneously is not. (Well, it probably is, but we're focusing on the established safe levels.)

My current method (until someone shows me evidence that it's a bad method) is to sous vide my sausage before either smoking or freezing for cooking later.
 
Great post Dave! Nice to have the info in one place...JJ
 
Thanks for re-posting some of the info and for adding to it.

Wade
 
Yes, thanks for re-posting...   I really wish I had known about time and temp long ago. I've been cooking for going on 43 years now, and always assumed the consumer recommended minimum temperatures were like set in stone and that there was no other safe way to cook better food...  So many dried out pork roasts and turkey... could have been better. But then, up until recently I really didn't have the equipment or even confidence in my equipment that I would have been able to make too much good use of it all. Even so... if I could count the number of times I had a Turkey that had hit 150F for more then 5 minutes... but I kept cooking it until it hit 165F... I'd have quite a few extra $$ in my pocket.
 
 
https://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae/docs/fact_sheet.htm

Here is an interesting article I found a while back in regards to Trichinosis specifically.  I have been fortunate the last couple years to harvest bears and I wanted to make sure I was cooking it safely.  

Dave, thanks for posting those charts!

Nate.
Morning...  as pointed out in the article, you posted, freezing does in the trich....    Someone on here posted, if I remember correctly, all commercial processed pork is frozen and the possibility of getting trich is next to zero.....
 
Below are excerpts from a PM with a member... Concerns making jerky...

It is important to note, you can't substitute rules from one recipe to a different recipe... It is important to note there are defining factors in each specific recipe that do not "translate" in food safety across the board.....

---------------

Below is one time/temp table to make food safe... The meat must be exposed to air, so as to not promote the growth of botulism... Those temps are reflecting the "internal temperature" of the meat...

Your thin chips are difficult to take the internal temp... One method and the FDA recommended method that can be employed is... place the meat strips in a liquid, beef broth as an example, raise the liquid temp to 150, (new guidelines recommend 165F) as an example, and hold for 3-4 minutes to insure that temp throughout the meat slice.. Then dry per normal in a dehydrating device..
After dehydrating, the meat can be exposed to 275 F, to kill remaining pathogens..

,

It is important to note that if you dehydrate dry meat strips, and the temp does not get to lethal kill temps before the meat is dehydrated, dehydrated pathogens can survive the expected lethal temperatures by a significant temp increase... only to be "reborn" once rehydrated...

The liquid method should be employed on beef / pork / turkey jerky... raise the wet meat to final accepted temperature for that meat and expected pathogen, then dry at a lower temp if you wish...

-------------------

Yes.... The pre step cooking in a liquid eliminates all the other BS... The pathogens are killed and you are ready to go.... All except botulism... but, keeping a good air supply, botulism will not grow...

You can add cure #1 to the liquid... I always do... It's just insurance against botulism... Add 1.1 grams of cure #1 per pound of stuff... or 1 tsp. per 5#'s of stuff..... meat plus liquid... that will bring the nitrite to ~150 Ppm... perfectly adequate to do in botulism and it's perfectly safe for us to eat... except infants... all nitrates / nitrites are bad for infants... blue baby syndrome... it's prevalent in some vegetables and some well water... the blood cannot carry oxygen, in an infant, when they are exposed to nitrates/ nitrites....

--------------------

Add everything you want to the broth method.... EXCEPT cure #1.... do the broth thing and cook the meat... Cool the broth... add the cure #1 to the cooled broth then marinate... I would use a vacuum tub to suck all the stuff into the meat... I have found 3 pulses does good.... Vac... release... Vac... release.... Vac... release and the liquid it all sucked into the meat... dry on paper towels then into the smoker or dehydrator..... Nitrite starts to break down at ~130 F....
 
Last edited:
Great info Dave and well explained. 
icon14.gif


The vacuum pump seems a good idea. Can you expand on that. Are you saying to vac packing and then releasing pressure 3 times or are you meaning something different?

Are you sure about the Nitrites and Blue Baby Syndrome? I know that Nitrates are implicated (which will rule out using cure #2) but I have not seen anything that indicates that Nitrites are also implicated here.

Cheers, Wade
 
Wade....   I made all that stuff up just to screw with the members on this great forum...   Have a great day....
 
Infants younger than 4 months of age are the highest risk group for harm from exposure to nitrates. • When nitrate containing well water is mixed with baby formula and fed to infants, it can create serious health effects. • Because the gastrointestinal system of infants is still developing after birth, they are at higher risk for serious health effects resulting from nitrate exposure. Infants with diarrhea and vomiting form more nitrites inside the body that place them at higher risk for health effects
with or without nitrate exposure. A pregnant woman and her fetus might be more sensitive to toxicity from nitrites or nitrates at or near the 30th week of pregnancy. Symptoms of nitrate/nitrite poisoning include • Bluish skin from a lack of oxygen (likely noticed around mouth/lips first). • Difficulty breathing, • Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, • Dehydration (from loss of bodily fluids) • Fast pulse, dizziness, weakness, coma and/or convulsions. What Can Be Learned from Lab Tests? How Is Overexposure to Nitrates/ Nitrites Treated How Can People Reduce the Risk of Exposure to Nitrates/ Nitrites? A number of different tests are available to evaluate health effects from overexposure to nitrates. • A screening test may include looking at the color of a few drops of blood placed on white filter paper. • Other tests can measure how nitrates are affecting the body’s ability to move oxygen to where it is needed most. This helps with plans for treatment. There are treatments for nitrate and nitrite poisoning. Methylene blue may be used to help make oxygen available to the body by reversing what nitrates have done to the molecules that carry oxygen in the body.

This excerpt from the CDC shows while nitrAtes are the primary conce, in well water and vegetables in baby food. NitrItes are also a concern under some conditions like gastrointestinal illness...JJ
 
 http://www.des.nh.gov/organization/commissioner/pip/factsheets/ard/documents/ard-ehp-16.pdf

Absorption
Nitrate is a health hazard because of its conversion to nitrite. Once ingested, conversion of nitrate to nitrite takes place in the saliva of people of all age groups, and in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. Infants convert approximately double, or 10 percent of ingested nitrate to nitrite compared to 5 percent conversion in older children and adults.

Short-Term (Acute) Effects
Nitrite changes the normal form of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood to the rest of the body, into a form called methemoglobin that cannot carry oxygen. High enough concentrations of nitrate in drinking water can result in a temporary blood disorder in infants called methemoglobinemia, commonly called "blue baby syndrome." In severe, untreated cases, brain damage and eventually death can result from suffocation due to lack of oxygen. Early symptoms of methemoglobinemia can include irritability, lack of energy, headache, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, labored breathing, and a blue-gray or pale purple coloration to areas around the eyes, mouth, lips, hands and feet.
Infants up to six months of age are considered to be the most sensitive population. Not only do they convert a greater percentage of nitrate to nitrite, their hemoglobin is more easily converted to methemoglobin and they have less of the enzyme that changes methemoglobin back to its oxygen-carrying form.
No cases of methemoglobinemia have been reported when water contained less than 10 parts per million (ppm) of nitrate nitrogen. The majority of cases involve exposure to levels in drinking water exceeding 50 ppm. Healthy adults do not develop methemoglobinemia at nitrate levels in drinking water that place infants at risk. Pregnant women are more sensitive to the effects of nitrate due to a natural increase in methemoglobin levels in blood during the later stage of pregnancy beginning around the 30th week. At increased risk are those individuals with rare conditions, which are generally passed on hereditarily, who have higher than normal levels of methemoglobin in their blood. Individuals with digestive difficulties due to reduced stomach acidity are also at higher risk. Boiling water that has elevated nitrates should be avoided, since this only results in increasing the concentration of nitrate as the water evaporates.
 

https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=28&po=8

EPA has set an enforceable standard called a maximum contaminant level (MCL) in water for nitrates at 10 parts per million (ppm) (10 mg/L) and for nitrites at 1 ppm (1 mg/L) [EPA 2002; EPA 2012].

The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization and the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Food have set an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrate of 0-3.7 milligrams (mg) nitrate ion/kilogram (kg) body weight. This intake appears to be safe for healthy neonates, children, and adults. The same is also true of the EPA reference dose (RfD) for nitrate of 1.6 mg nitrate nitrogen/kg body weight per day (equivalent to about 7.0 mg nitrate ion/kg body weight per day) [EPA 2002; EPA 2012].

JECFA has proposed an ADI for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg nitrite ion/kg body weight. EPA has set an RfD of 0.l mg nitrite nitrogen/kg body weight per day (equivalent to 0.33 mg nitrite ion/kg body weight per day) [Mensinga et al. 2003; Abadin et al. 1998; EPA 2002; EPA 2012].

Bottled water

Allowable levels in bottled water:
  • Nitrate 10 mg/L (as nitrogen)
  • Nitrite 1 mg/L (as nitrogen)
  • Total nitrates, nitrites 10 mg/L (as nitrogen)
Allowable levels as an additive to foods:
  • As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in
    • Smoked, cured sablefish
    • Smoked, cured salmon
    • Smoked, cured shad
    so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million (ppm) and the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 ppm in the finished product.
  • As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrate to not more than 500 ppm in the finished meat product and the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 ppm in the finished meat product.
  • The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of cod roe, in an amount not to exceed 200 ppm of the finished roe.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) regulates food ingredients approved for use in the production of meat and poultry products. This includes inspection for required labeling of meat products when substances such as sodium nitrate are used in meat packaging [USDA 2012].

Infant Methemoglobinemia: The Role of Dietary Nitrate in Food and Water

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/116/3/784
 
High enough concentrations of nitrate in drinking water can result in a temporary blood disorder in infants called methemoglobinemia, commonly called "blue baby syndrome." In severe, untreated cases, brain damage and eventually death can result from suffocation due to lack of oxygen. 
Thanks Dave - A lot of good information there too. I see though that the only mention of Blue Baby Syndrome was in conjunction with Nitrate.
 
Info from a UK article below. Many references to Nitrate and Blue Baby Syndrome don't seem to include reference to Nitrate conversion to Nitrite by saliva and gut Flora. Maybe it is assumed the reader knows this. Therefore, both are of concern...JJ


http://www.ecifm.rdg.ac.uk/bluebabs.htm

Blue Baby Syndrome - An illness that begins when large amounts of nitrates in water are ingested by an infant and converted to nitrite by the digestive system. The nitrite then reacts with oxyhemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying blood protein) to form metheglobin, which cannot carry oxygen. If a large enough amount of metheglobin is formed in the blood, body tissues may be deprived of oxygen, causing the infant to develop a blue coloration of their mucous membranes and possibly digestive and respiratory problems. This condition is also known as methemoglobinemia.

The majority of cases have occurred when nitrate levels have been over 100 mg/litre. However, in many cases bacterial contamination of the water causing gut infections was present or suspected. There have been no cases in the UK since 1972.
 
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