Cured And Smoke Sausage - New to Sausage Making

Discussion in 'Sausage' started by zender28, Aug 1, 2016.

  1. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    I new to sausage making. Actually i am just about to start sausage making. I have read thru lot of forum here and there. Finally I have found this forum which is very good. Although i am still confuse in how to use my cure. I live in Malaysia. Here i cant get my self curing salt. Best thing I could get is 5% sodium nitrite salt. Is that good enought for curing?
    And I am confuse on how to cure my meat. Am I suppose to grind my meat and mix cure and seasoning and stuff in casing? Im using natural casing. After that do I need to keep the stuff sausage in fridge over night or I can smoke it directly?
    I am planning to smoke it in my electric smoker with temp 160-165F. Smoke it until I get meat temp of 152-155. Please do advice on how should i cure my meat and do i need to leave it overnight in the fridge. Thank you.
  2. crazymoon

    crazymoon Master of the Pit SMF Premier Member

    Z28, welcome!. the nitrite sold here is 6.25%. you should be able to go to amazon and buy cure #1 from them. I  always stuff w/seasoning and cure and let sit overnight to let everything meld together.Start your smoker low at 110-120 with no smoke for an hour or so. Start the smoke then and bump the temps up 10 degrees every hour for a few hours and don't go over 170 or your fat with run out. Click on the magnifying glass in the above right corner to use the search bar for all kinds of sausage smoking tips . Good Luck !
  3. wade

    wade Master of the Pit OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    Hi Zender

    If you are looking to make sausage that you are going to hot smoke then the Sodium Nitrite will be fine however if you are going to make any cured meats that are going to be air dried then you will also need Potassium Nitrate. You mention sausage so will assume that you are going to hot smoke it.

    The use of Nitrite in sausage is to protect the meat from bacterial growth in the short term whilst it is being cold/slow hot smoked until it is finally cooked. To use you just need to calculate the amount of cure to add to achieve a final level of Nitrite that is both safe to eat and is an effective antibacterial. You will need to take into account all of the ingredients that you are going to include in the sausage in order to calculate the amount of cure you need to add.

    You are looking to achieve an end concentration of Nitrite of no more than 150 mg/Kg and no less than 50 mg/Kg. As you can see the effective range is quite broad. Ideally you should aim to achieve around 120-130 mg/Kg then you will be well within the acceptable range.

    As CrazyMoon mentioned the cure that is usually sold is 6.25% Nitrite however to use your 5% you only need to adjust the calculation a little to take this into account.

    An example calculation for a mix containing the following:

    1,000 g meat )1Kg)

    57 g Water (1/4 cup)

    18 g Salt (~2%)

    18 g Sugar (~2%)

    10 g herbs

    Total weight of ingredients = 1,103 g

    mg/Kg required (Ppm) - 130

    Nitrite in cure expressed as a decimal % - 0.05 (5%)

    The calculation...

    <amount of cure required> = (<mg/Kg required> * <total weight of ingredients>) / (<Nitrite% in cure> * 1,000,000)

    In order to achieve 130 mg/Kg (or Ppm) Nitrite then for the ingredients above you need to replace 2.86 grams of the salt with your 5% cure.

    Note - if you add 3g of cure you will get 140 mg/Kg Nitrite and if you only add 2g of cure then you will get 94 mg/Kg Nitrite - so anywhere in between 2 and 3 grams is fine. This is however a still very small amount of cure and this is why we recommend using digital scales that are accurate to 0.1 of a gram.
  4. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    Hi, well it hard to or close to unable to get 6.25% nitrite here where I live. And to order from amazon, it is quite expensive for shipping cost. That is why i am planning to use 5% only. And with correct calculation. I hope i get the right amount. Is it a must to leave the stuffed sausage overnight in the refrigerator? Do I need to hang it or leave it lying around in the fridge is fine?
  5. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    Hi, is 160-165 smoking temp consider as hot smoke? Than if it is, can I mix the cure directly into the meat with seasoning and smoke it directly? Or i have to put it in the fridge overnight?
    Is it 130ppm? I read somewhere in this forum it is 156ppm. Total weigh of ingredient is include the seasoning? I thought only the meat counts.
  6. wade

    wade Master of the Pit OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    Yes getting the IT up to 160-165 is a hot smoke as the sausage is then cooked. The advantage of adding the Nitrite is that you can then take your time getting it up to this temperature - several hours if necessary.

    Yes you can mix the cure directly with the meat and smoke it directly. You can also leave it at room temperature for several hours for the surface to dry and the colour develop. If you are keeping it overnight before smoking then you should keep it chilled. Once it is cooked then you need to refrigerate it like any other cooked meat. 

    The effective safe range of the Nitrite is from ~50 Ppm to 156 Ppm (I was rounding on the side of safety). The upper recommended limit is 156 Ppm but you really should not need to be up that high unless the recipe requires it.

    Technically when calculating you should take into account all of the ingredients however if you only take the meat into account and do not have large proportions of the other ingredients then the actual end result will vary slightly. For instance, if you ignore the weight of the other ingredients in the above calculation then the Nitrite will be at 143 mg/Kg (Ppm) - so still within the safe range.

    This is not an exact science though so do not get too worried about a few Ppm either way. Without Lab testing there is really no way to calculate the actual amount of Nitrite remaining in the sausage after it has been cooked as the sausage will lose water during the smoking and cooking process and Nitrite is reported to be broken down by the heat as it is being cooked.

    If you want to keep the calculations simple and have a relatively low percentage of other ingredients then just use the weight of the meat

    If you want to be technically accurate then use the weight of all of the ingredients.

    Will using either make the sausage potentially unsafe to eat? No it probably won't unless you are aiming for very low Ppms.
    Last edited: Aug 3, 2016
  7. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    Hi wade, thank you sooooo much. You have completely clear up all my confusion. Now i am ready to smoke some nice sausage. :) Any good recipe for me to try out 😁. Thanks again for all the good info.
  8. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    You meant IT the sausage internal temperature or the temperature inside the smoker?
  9. wade

    wade Master of the Pit OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    Here are is one that I use and works well. I am sure that many others will also be able to contribute too.

    Pork    2 Kg        Approximately 30% fat
    Beef    1 Kg        Marbled beef
    Salt     23 g  
    Black pepper - ground    8 g
    Garlic powder    5 g        
    Marjoram - dried    6 g   
    Ancho Chilli    6 g    
    Paprika    4 g  
    Fennel seend - ground    6 g 
    **Cure (5% Nitrite)    8.5 g 
    Water    1  cup  

    **For 6.25% Nitrite use 7 g

    Slice the meat into cubes and pass through a 4-5 mm grinding plate

    Add other ingredients and mix well. To ensure that the cure is evenly mixed you can dissolve it in the water before it is added.

    Stuff into natural casings - I use 22-26 mm but you can use any size you prefer

    Tie off at 12" lengths.

    Allow to try at room temperature for 2 hours and then cold smoke over hickory for 2 hours

    Refrigerate overnight

    Hot smoke at 225 F until IT of sausage reaches 170 F

    Enjoy [​IMG]
  10. wade

    wade Master of the Pit OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    The IT of the sausage. That is what is important.
  11. Your plan to smoke to 152*-155* is correct. Wade gave you great advise on safe limits for nitrite and how to calculate how much to use. I would also follow crazymoons advise on stuffing and smoking temps. I would not start smoking at 160*-165* smoker temp. You run the risk of looseing the fat from the sausage and end up with a dry crumbly sausage. Good luck
  12. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    Hi, yea im planning to smoker until the IT around 152-155. So it best to smoke at low temp and gradually increase 10 degree every hour? But that will take long hour of smoking?
  13. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    Hi, if hot smoke start at 225F. Will it dry out the sausage once finish? Thanks for the recipe. Will try it soon.
  14. wade

    wade Master of the Pit OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    Whether it dries out or not is dependent on the content of the sausage. This one works well cooked at 225 F for a short hot smoke.

    I have other recipes that do need to to be cooked slowly. Typically these start at 115-130F for up to 2 1/2 hours then at around 180 F 20 minutes - or until the meat IT reaches 160 F. You could smoke the above recipe this way but it is not necessary as the end result is very similar. If anything the lower temperature leads to the drier sausage.

    The important thing is to follow recipes that others have found work and then start to tweak them. If you wanted to start your tweaking with your first batch why not make the recipe above and cook half at 225 F and the other half at the lower temperature and see which you prefer. None will be wasted as you will love them smoked either way.

    Remember there are wrong ways to smoke but there is no single right way.
  15. . Absolutly right wade. I was typeing when you posted your recipe. I always follow a recipes directions the first time i make something and then tweak the next time if i want something a little different
  16. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    You got a point wade. Okay. I will try the recipe I found and try yours next. But Is there other alternative if im not using beef for your recipe. I want to make some good sausage for my dad but he alergic to beef.
  17. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    I am smoking my first stuffed sausage. I hope it taste good. :) The 1st batch i made the casinng did not break. The 2nd batch break when i stuff it. Maybe i made to big. Btw my casing is 28-30mm. And My sausage wont get dry when i leave it. Even it get sweaty. Seems like all the fat oil coming out. The 1st batch i poke a small hole and 2nd batch i did not. But both are sweating. Can anyone help me how should i dry my sausage before stuff it? And how should i stuff it to avoid casing break.
  18. wade

    wade Master of the Pit OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    I am not sure what you mean about drying your sausage before you stuff it.

    To stop the casings from splitting there are several things that you can try...

    Make sure that you soak them well before you use them. Are they natural or synthetic casings?

    Do not over stuff. They should be full but not taught like a balloon. There should be room inside for you to be able to pinch your fingers together at any point along the sausage and feel them touch together with the filling moving to one side as you press. If you cannot do this then the sausage is over stuffed.

    To help stop your casing from splitting when they are being smoked do not make the fill mix too wet.
    Last edited: Aug 15, 2016
  19. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    Hi wade, no i mean drying after stuffed. Do i need to? Or just smoke it directly. Because the casing become wet and oily. Im not sure why. Oh thn i guess i stuffed it too much. I can pinch but it get quite tight. Maybe i should loosen it abit next time. And im having trouble with my stuffer/grinder. Im using stx 3000mf. During stuffing, when i put in my grinded meat. Very hard for the machine to push the meat into the casing. I have to push it everytime.
  20. zender28

    zender28 Newbie

    I have made few batch of sausage now. Im not sure why, everytime i stuff my sausage in the hog casing. Once i put it to dry on my table. After 30mins or so, the casing is oily. It dont get dry. Is it because of the fat coming out from the casing? Also, how can I make the hog casing texture soft? Always smoke my sausage. And once i taste it. The casing is always a bit hard. Is there a way how I can make it softer?

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