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Chicken in marinade
Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. The origins of the word allude to the use of brine (aqua marina) in the pickling process, which led to the technique of adding flavor by immersion in liquid. The liquid in question, the 'marinade', can be acidic with ingredients such as vinegar, lemon juice, or wine or enzymatic (made with ingredients such as pineapple or papaya.)[1] Along with these liquids, a marinade often contains oils, herbs, and spices to further flavor the food items.

It is commonly used to flavor foods and to tenderize tougher cuts of meat.[2] The process may last seconds or days. Different marinades are used in different cuisines. For example, in Indian cuisine the marinade is usually prepared with mixture of spices.

Contents [hide]
1 Tissue breakdown
2 Health advisements
3 See also
4 References
[edit]Tissue breakdown

In meats, the acid causes the tissue to break down, allowing more moisture to be absorbed and giving a juicier end product.[2] However, too much acid can be detrimental to the end product. A good marinade will have a delicate balance of spices, acids, and oil. It is generally not recommended that raw marinated meats be frozen, as the marinade can break down the surface and make the outer layer turn mushy.[3]

Often confused with marinating, "macerating" is a similar form of food preparation.

[edit]Health advisements

The American Institute for Cancer Research recommends discarding used marinade that has been applied to raw meats. Meats, such as red meat, fish, and chicken, may contain unhealthy substances or microorganisms which may enter the marinade, according to health experts attributed by the AICR. These substances would become neutralized in the cooking process but using the leftover marinade later as a sauce holds the risk of reapplication. If additional flavoring from the marinade is desired, prepare a new batch, or put some aside before soaking the meat for later use.[4]

[edit]See also

Barbecue sauce

^ a b
^ Camas, Joanne. "Marinating Meat Then Freezing It", "Epicurious", August 31, 2010.
^ "American Institute for Cancer Research". Good Food/Good Health. 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2008-02-02.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In cooking, brining is a process similar to marination in which meat is soaked in brine before cooking.[1]

Brining makes cooked meat moister by hydrating the cells of its muscle tissue before cooking, via the process of osmosis, and by allowing the cells to hold on to the water while they are cooked, via the process of denaturation.[1] The brine surrounding the cells has a higher concentration of salt than the fluid within the cells, but the cell fluid has a higher concentration of other solutes.[1] This leads salt ions to diffuse into the cell, whilst the solutes in the cells cannot diffuse through the cell membranes into the brine. The increased salinity of the cell fluid causes the cell to absorb water from the brine via osmosis.[1] The salt introduced into the cell also denatures its proteins.[1] The proteins coagulate, forming a matrix that traps water molecules and holds them during cooking. This prevents the meat from dehydrating.

In many foods the additional salt is also desirable as a preservative.

Kosher meats are salted during the process of koshering, so are not brined.

Some cheeses are periodically washed in brine during their ripening. Not only does the brine carry flavors into the cheese (it might be seasoned with spices or wine), but the salty environment may nurture the growth of the Brevibacterium linens bacteria, which can impart a very pronounced odor (Limburger) and interesting flavor. The same bacteria can also have some effect on cheeses that are simply ripened in humid conditions, like Camembert. Large populations of these "smear bacteria" show up as a sticky orange-red layer on some brine-washed cheeses.

[edit]See also

Pickling salt

^ a b c d e McGee, Harold (2004). ON FOOD AND COOKING, The science and lore of the kitchen. Scribner. pp. 155–156. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1.
[edit]External links

Brining on Cooking For Engineers - a discussion on what happens to meat as it brines (with reader comments)
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Curing (food preservation)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sea salt being added to raw ham to make Prosciutto.

Bag of Prague powder #1, also known as "curing salt" or "pink salt." It's typically a combination of salt and sodium nitrite, with the pink color added to distinguish it from ordinary salt.
Curing refers to various food preservation and flavoring processes, especially of meat or fish, by the addition of a combination of salt, nitrates, nitrite[1] or sugar. Many curing processes also involve smoking, the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. The use of food dehydration was the earliest form of food curing.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Chemical actions
2.1 Salt
2.2 Sugar
2.3 Nitrates and nitrites
2.4 Smoke
3 See also
4 Notes
5 References
6 External links

Food curing dates back to ancient times, both in the form of smoked meat and as salt-cured meat.[2] Although the ancient people curing the meat did not know this, it was actually nitrates present in the salt that helped the curing process. The Plains Indians used to hang their meat at the top of their teepees to increase the amount of smoke coming into contact with the food.[2] It was discovered in the 1800s that salt mixed with nitrites (saltpeter) would color meats red, rather than grey, and consumers at that time then strongly preferred the red-colored meat.[1]

[edit]Chemical actions

Table salt (sodium chloride) is the primary ingredient used in meat curing.[2] Removal of water and addition of salt to meat creates a solute-rich environment where osmotic pressure draws water out of microorganisms, retarding their growth.[2][3] Doing this requires a concentration of salt of nearly 20%.[3] In addition, salt causes the soluble meat proteins to come to the surface of the meat particles within sausages. These proteins coagulate when the sausage is heated, helping to hold the sausage together.[4] Finally, salt slows the oxidation process, effectively preventing the meat from going rancid.[3]

The sugar added to meat for the purpose of curing it comes in many forms, including honey, corn syrup solids, and maple syrup.[5] However, with the exception of bacon, it does not contribute much to the flavor,[6] but it does alleviate the harsh flavor of the salt.[2] Sugar also contributes to the growth of beneficial bacteria like Lactobacillus by feeding them.[7]

[edit]Nitrates and nitrites

Nitrates and nitrites not only help kill bacteria, but also produce a characteristic flavor and give meat a pink or red color.[8] Nitrate (NO3−), generally supplied by sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate, is used as a source for nitrite (NO2−). The nitrite further breaks down in the meat into nitric oxide (NO), which then binds to the iron atom in the center of myoglobin's heme group, reducing oxidation and causing a reddish-brown color (nitrosomyoglobin) when raw, and the characteristic cooked-ham pink color (nitrosohemochrome or nitrosyl-heme) when cooked. The addition of ascorbate to cured meat reduces formation of nitrosamines, but increases the nitrosylation of iron. The use of nitrates in food preservation is controversial, though, due to the potential for the formation of nitrosamines when the preserved food is cooked at high temperature.[8] The usage of either compound is therefore carefully regulated; for example, in the United States, the concentration of nitrates and nitrites is generally limited to 200 ppm or lower.[8] However, they are considered irreplaceable in the prevention of botulinum poisoning from consumption of cured dry sausages by preventing spore germination.[9]

A 2007 study by Columbia University suggests a link between eating cured meats and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nitrites were posited as a possible cause.[10] According to a review by the World Cancer Research Fund of more than 7,000 clinical studies of the correlation between diet and cancer, processed meats are too dangerous for human consumption. Consumers are cautioned against buying and eating all processed meat products. They are usually made with sodium nitrite, used to turn meat red so that it looks fresh. Sodium nitrite causes the formation of cancer causing nitrosamines in the human body.[11][12]

This section requires expansion.
Main article: Smoking (cooking)
Meat can also be preserved by smoking, which is to cook the meat in the presence of smoke. (Thus, the meat is usually near a fire.) Slow-cooking meat while smoking it will also keep it tender.[13] One method of smoking calls for a smokehouse with damp wood chips or sawdust.[14]

[edit]See also

Food portal
Curing salt
Salting (food)
Sausage making

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Pickling (disambiguation).

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (Consider using more specific cleanup instructions.) Please help improve this article if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (October 2010)

Cucumbers (specifically, Gherkins) gathered for pickling.

Middle East style pickles from Syria.
Pickling, also known as brining or corning is the process of preserving food by anaerobic fermentation in brine (a solution of salt in water) to produce lactic acid, or marinating and storing it in an acid solution, usually vinegar (acetic acid). The resulting food is called a pickle. This procedure gives the food a salty or sour taste. In South Asia, edible oils are used as the pickling medium with vinegar.

Another distinguishing characteristic is a pH less than 4.6,[1] which is sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling can preserve perishable foods for months. Antimicrobial herbs and spices, such as mustard seed, garlic, cinnamon or cloves, are often added.[2] If the food contains sufficient moisture, a pickling brine may be produced simply by adding dry salt. For example, sauerkraut and Korean kimchi are produced by salting the vegetables to draw out excess water. Natural fermentation at room temperature, by lactic acid bacteria, produces the required acidity. Other pickles are made by placing vegetables in vinegar. Unlike the canning process, pickling (which includes fermentation) does not require that the food be completely sterile before it is sealed. The acidity or salinity of the solution, the temperature of fermentation, and the exclusion of oxygen determine which microorganisms dominate, and determine the flavor of the end product.[3]

When both salt concentration and temperature are low, Leuconostoc mesenteroides dominates, producing a mix of acids, alcohol, and aroma compounds. At higher temperatures Lactobacillus plantarum dominates, which produces primarily lactic acid. Many pickles start with Leuconostoc, and change to Lactobacillus with higher acidity.[3]

Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Pickle etymology
2 Popularity of pickles around the world
2.1 Asia
2.1.1 South Asia
2.1.2 East Asia
2.1.3 Middle East
2.1.4 Asia Minor
2.2 Europe
2.2.1 Eastern Europe
2.2.2 Western Europe
2.2.3 Southern Europe
2.2.4 Northern Europe
2.3 North America
3 The pickling process
3.1 Further information
4 Other home food preservation methods
5 Health effects from pickled vegetables
6 References
7 External links

Pickling began 4000 years ago using cucumbers native to India. This was used as a way to preserve food for out-of-season use and for long journeys, especially by sea. Salt pork and salt beef were common staples for sailors before the days of steam engines. Although the process was invented to preserve foods, pickles are also made and eaten because people enjoy the resulting flavors. Pickling may also improve the nutritional value of food by introducing B vitamins produced by bacteria.[4]

[edit]Pickle etymology
The term pickle is derived from the Dutch word pekel, meaning brine. In the U.S. and Canada, the word pickle alone almost always refers to a pickled cucumber[citation needed] (other types of pickles will be described as "pickled onion," "pickled cauliflower," etc.), except when it is used figuratively.

[edit]Popularity of pickles around the world

[edit]South Asia

Kimchi is a very common side dish in Korea.
Main articles: Chinese pickles, Mixed pickle, and Indian pickles
India has a large variety of pickles (known as Achar in Punjabi and Hindi, Uppinakaayi in Kannada, Lonacha in Marathi, Oorukai in Tamil, ooragaya (ఊరగాయ) in Telugu, which are mainly made from Mango, Lime, Indian Goose Berry (Anwla), Chilli, vegetables, Ginger, Garlic and Citron. These fruits/vegetables are generally mixed with some other ingredients i.e. salt, spices, vegetable oils and is set to mature.

In Pakistan, pickles are known locally as Achaar (in Urdu) and come in a variety of flavours. Amongst some of the most popular is the traditional mixed Hyderabadi pickle, a common delicacy and staple prepared out of an assortment of fruits (most notably mangos) and vegetables blended with selected spices.

[edit]East Asia
Indonesian pickles, acar, are typically made out of cucumber, carrot, bird's eye chilies, and shallots, these items being seasoned with vinegar, sugar and salt. Fruits, such as papaya and pineapple are also sometimes pickled. In the Philippines, achara is primarily made out of green papaya, carrots, and shallots, with cloves of garlic and vinegar. In Vietnam, vegetable pickles are called dưa muối (salted vegetables) or dưa chua ("sour vegetables"). In Sri Lanka, achcharu is traditionally prepared out of carrots, onions, and ground dates. Mixed with mustard powder, ground pepper, crushed ginger, garlic and vinegar, these items are seasoned in a clay pot

China is home to a huge variety of pickled vegetables, including radish, baicai (Chinese cabbage, notably suan cai, la bai cai, pao cai, and Tianjin preserved vegetable), zha cai, chili pepper and cucumber, among many others.

Japanese tsukemono (pickled foods) include takuan (daikon), umeboshi (ume plum), gari & beni shoga (ginger), turnip, cucumber, and Chinese cabbage.

The Korean staple kimchi is usually made from pickled cabbage and radish, but is also made from green onions, garlic stems, chives and a host of other vegetables. Kimchi is popular throughout East Asia. Jangajji is another example of pickled vegetables.

[edit]Middle East
In Iran, Israel and all Arab countries, pickles (called torshi in Persian, mekhallel in Arabic, and hamutzim in Hebrew) are commonly made from turnips, peppers, carrots, green olives, cucumbers, beetroot, cabbage, lemons, and cauliflower.

[edit]Asia Minor
Turkish pickles, called turşu, are made out of vegetables, roots, and fruits such as peppers, cucumber, Armenian cucumber, cabbage, tomato, eggplant (aubergine), carrot, turnip, beetroot, green almond, baby watermelon, baby cantaloupe, and green plum. A mixture of spices flavor the pickles.

[edit]Eastern Europe

A dish of giardiniera

Coriander seeds are one of the spices popularly added to pickled vegetables in Europe.
Romanian pickles are made out of beetroot, cucumbers, green tomatoes (gogonele), carrots, cabbage, bell peppers, melons, mushrooms, turnips, celery and cauliflower. Meat, like pork, can also be preserved in salt and lard.

In Greece, pickles, called τουρσι, are made out of carrots, celery, eggplants stuffed with diced carrots, cauliflower, tomatoes, and peppers.

In Albania, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Macedonia, mixed pickles, known as turshi, form popular appetizers, which are typically eaten with rakia. Pickled green tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, bell peppers, peppers, eggplants, and sauerkraut are also popular.

Polish traditional pickles are cucumbers and cabbage, but other pickled fruits and vegetables, including plums, pumpkins and mushrooms are also common.

Russian pickled items include beets, mushrooms, tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, ramsons, garlic, eggplant (which is typically stuffed with julienned carrots), custard squash, and watermelon.

Pickled herring, rollmops, and salmon are popular in Scandinavia. Pickled cucumbers and red garden beets are important as condiments for several traditional dishes. Pickled capers are also common in scandinavian cuisine.

In Ukraine, garden produce is commonly pickled using salt, dill, currant leaves and garlic and is stored in a cool, dark place.

[edit]Western Europe
In Britain, pickled onions and pickled eggs are often sold in pubs and fish and chip shops. Pickled beetroot, walnuts, and gherkins, and condiments such as Branston Pickle and piccalilli are typically eaten as an accompaniment to pork pies and cold meats, sandwiches or a ploughman's lunch. Other popular pickles in the UK are pickled mussels, cockles, red cabbage, mango chutney, sauerkraut, and olives.

[edit]Southern Europe
An Italian pickled vegetable dish is giardiniera, which include onions, carrots, celery and cauliflower.

[edit]Northern Europe
In Sweden, pickled herring is a specialty that is eaten at major holidays such as Easter, midsummer, and Christmas. It is also used in other countries along the Baltic Sea.

[edit]North America

A jar of pickled okra
In the United States and Canada, pickled cucumbers (most often referred to simply as "pickles" in Canada and the United States), olives, and sauerkraut are most popular, although pickles popular in other nations (such as the pickled tomatoes commonly offered in New York City delicatessens) are also available. Giardiniera, a mixture of pickled peppers, celery and olives, is a popular condiment in Chicago and other cities with large Italian-American populations, and is often consumed with Italian beef sandwiches. Pickled eggs are common in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In the Southern United States, pickled okra and watermelon rind are popular, as are deep-fried pickles and pickled pig's feet, chicken eggs, quail eggs and pickled sausage.[5][6]

In Mexico, chile peppers, particularly of the Jalapeño and serrano varieties, pickled with onions, carrots and herbs form common condiments.

[edit]The pickling process

In chemical pickling, the jar and lid are first boiled in order to sterilize them. The fruits or vegetables to be pickled are then added to the jar along with brine and/or vinegar as well as spices and are then allowed to ferment until the desired taste is obtained. In commercial pickling, a preservative like sodium benzoate or EDTA may also be added to enhance shelf life. In fermentation pickling, the food itself produces the preservation agent, typically by a process that produces lactic acid.

[edit]Further information
Indian pickle
Lemon pickle
Mixed pickle
Pickled cucumber
Pickled egg
Pickled herring
Pickled snakes
Pickling salt
Peter Piper
Pickled pepper
[edit]Other home food preservation methods

Food portal
Main article: Food preservation
Home canning
[edit]Health effects from pickled vegetables

The World Health Organization has listed pickled vegetables as a possible carcinogen and the British Journal of Cancer released an online 2009 review of research on pickles as increasing the risks of esophageal cancer. The report cites increases of cancer by about 100% in Chinese areas relying on pickled vegetables for nutrition. Results from the research are described as having "high heterogeneity" and suggested that further studies were necessary. However, their results stated a "The majority of subgroup analyses showed a statistically significant association between consuming pickled vegetables and Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma".[7] Since the release of the report, many people have distanced themselves from these findings, citing that cause of the increases in esophageal cancer is probably attributable to the method in which the pickles are made, notably the fungus involved and that large scale pickle manufacturer' products are not likely to cause cancer because the method of manufacturing takes less time and is frequently pasteurized, however there is no scientific evidence to support this contention. There may well be differences in Chinese pickle making that cause the observed increases in cancer vs. less traditional methods, but scientific research has not been conducted.


^ Minnesota Department of Agriculture "Pickle Bill" Fact Shnhjksrpstr;wgu 4y th80yhoigfeet
^ Antimicrobial Effects of Mustard Flour and Acetic Acid
^ a b McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Scribner, pp. 291–296. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.
^ Science of Pickles: Fascinating Pickle Facts
^ Zeldes, Leah A. (2009-12-02). "Eat this! Southern-fried dill pickles, a rising trend". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc.. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
^ Pickled Pigs Feet Recipe
^ Islami, F. "Pickled vegetables and the risk of oesophageal cancer: a meta-analysis". British Journal of Cancer. Retrieved 08/16/2011.
[edit]External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pickled food
Fermented Fruits and Vegetables. A Global Perspective. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
National Center for Home Food Preservation: How do I...Pickle
Pickles (BBC)
Pickling video with the perennialplate
[1] British Journal of Cancer Review of Research involving cancer risk from pickled vegetable consumption
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