Well, probably one of the best examples is pork belly. It is as it says it is, the belly layer from the hog. Off the top of it comes the spare ribs. It's long and rectangular in shape. In it's pristine form as pork belly, it can be sliced into what is known as 'sidepork', delicious fried with the rind (outer skin) on, then make a nice sidepork milk gravy from the drippin's.
But, second stage, you cure it with pickling salts and sugars. Once cured through, now it's 'Salt Pork' - a favorite in baked beans, bean soup, stews, etc.
The third stage of the process is to take the salt pork and put it in the smoker and smoke it and get it up to at least 136° internal temp (to kill trichinosis - which resides only in the fat). Now, voila... Bacon!
Same meat, three different processing stages, and three distinct and different end products - sidepork, salt pork, and bacon!