I just briefly scanned for answers...... below is some informative reading..... The links give a full detail of the abstracts.... better to get the information from the scientists than someone's interpretation..... To help anyone out to understand this stuff.....
200 ug per gram = 200 Ppm ......... mg per Kg = Ppm
27 deg. C X 1.8 + 32 = 80.6 deg. F
Samples of (i) a control or of (ii) sodium nitrite-containing or (iii) sorbic acid-containing, mechanically deboned chicken meat frankfurter-type emulsions inoculated with Clostridium botulinum spores, or a combination of ii and iii, were temperature abuse at 27 degrees C. Spore germination and total microbial growth were followed and examined at specified times and until toxic samples were detected. The spores germinated within 3 days in both control and nitrite (20, 40 and 156 micrograms/g) treatments. Sorbic acid (0.2%) alone or in combination with nitrite (20, 40, and 156 micrograms/g) significantly (P less than 0.05) inhibited spore germinations. No significant germination was recorded until toxic samples were detected. A much longer incubation period was necessary for toxin to be formed in nitrite-sorbic acid combination treatments as contrasted with controls or nitrite and sorbic acid used individually. Total growth was not affected by the presence of nitrite, whereas sorbic acid appeared to depress it. Possible mechanisms explaining the effects of nitrite and sorbic acid on spore germination and growth are postulated.
Comminuted ham was formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite and nitrate, inoculated with Clostridium botulinum, and pasteurized to an internal temperature of 68.5 C. When added to the meat, nitrite concentrations decreased, and cooking had little effect on them. Nitrite concentrations decreased more rapidly during storage at 27 than at 7 C; however they remained rather constant at formulated levels throughout the experiment at both incubation temperatures. The level of nitrite added to the meat greatly influenced growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. The concentration of nitrite necessary to effect complete inhibition was dependent on the inoculum level. With 90 C. botulinum spores/g of meat, botulinum toxin developed in samples formulated with 150 but not with 200 μg of nitrite per g of meat. At a spore level of 5,000/g, toxin was detected in samples with 400 but not with 500 μg of nitrite per g of the product incubated at 27 C. At lower concentrations of nitrite, growth was retarded at both spore levels. No toxin developed in samples incubated at 7 C. Nitrate showed a statistically significant inhibitory effect at a given nitrite level; however, the effect was insufficient to be of practical value. Analyses for 14 volatile nitrosamines from samples made with varying levels of nitrite and nitrate were negative at a detection level of 0.01 μg of nitrite or nitrate per g of meat.
FSIS (Food Safety Inspection Service)...... explanation of botulism......